Town and Regional Planning <!-- Global site tag (gtag.js) - Google Analytics --> <p><em>Town and Regional Planning</em>&nbsp;is a South African accredited journal for independently adjudicated research articles on applicable topics in town, urban and regional planning.</p> en-US <p><strong>Copyright</strong>: Copyright is transferred to the author(s)&nbsp; when an article is accepted for publication.&nbsp;<br><strong>Publishing rights</strong>: When an author/s publish an article in <em>Town and Regional Planning</em>, the author/s enter into a non-exclusive publishing agreement. This means that author/s may upload a second copy to institutional repositories.</p> <p><a href=""><img src=""></a><br>All articles are published under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution Licence (CC BY 4.0)</a>; readers are welcome to reproduce, share and adapt the content without permission provided the source is attributed.</p> <p><strong>Disclaimer:</strong>&nbsp;Views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the author(s). Publication thereof does not indicate that the Editorial Staff or the University of the Free State accept responsibility for it.</p> (Prof. Malene Campbell) (Alna Beukes) Thu, 28 Jan 2021 12:52:52 +0200 OJS 60 Gone to ground: A history of environment and infrastructure in Dar es Salaam by Emily Brownell <p>Dar es Salaam has always held a particular fascination for urbanists and environmentalists alike. In the wake of the monumental publication edited by Bernard Calas, <em>From Dar es Salaam to Bongoland. Urban mutations in Tanzania</em> (Mkuki Na Nyota Publishers, 2010) comes this major contribution by Emily Brownell, a lecturer in Environmental History at the University of Edinburgh. In <em>Gone to ground – A history of environment and infrastructure in Dar es Salaam</em>, Brownell focuses on the central tension between city and countryside to narrate the story of the city’s environment and infrastructure. The title refers to how urbanites settled in the urban periphery to escape the state’s policing of urban space. Brownell’s analysis of the city’s changing landscape during the 1970s and 1980s is also valid for many of South Africa’s populous cities: she chronicles the perpetual transit between city and periphery, the quest for housing, food and transportation. It is a narrative about making do with what is available and about ensuring one’s own survival.</p> Naòmi Morgan Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Structuring South Africa’s national economic space: A regional corridor network model approach <p>South Africa adopted a National Development Plan (NDP) (2013), referred to in the National Spatial Development Framework (NSDF) (2019) as a ‘super plan’, to transform national space economy and in the process disrupt the apartheid spatial logic. The South African National government adopted a series of acts and policies; sector plans and programmes, as well as strategic infrastructure investment programmes to eliminate the triple challenges of inequality, unemployment and poverty. This requires a strategic response, including a reorientation of selecting specific cities or regions as preferred locations to create development opportunities. Such a strategic response would require justifiable spatial solutions that can promote economic development. The article focuses on development corridors as a potential solution, elevating the importance of regional attractiveness as essential for economic growth. It is anticipated that the evolution of development corridors will result in the strengthening of cities and regional centres linked to the benefits exerted by corridors, on the one hand, and strong intra-national and interregional economic integration, on the other. The article concludes that development corridors are created to seek development opportunities, thereby increasing the spatial attractiveness of regions and cities that may provide for better economic spaces in South Africa.</p> André Brand, Ernst Drewes Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Multi-stakeholder perspectives on approaches for addressing the incidence of urban public open space encroachment: The case of Freedom Square, Bloemfontein <p>Several studies have investigated the extinction of urban public open spaces in South Africa. However, a fixation by such studies on well-established primary cities has been noticed, whilst limited attention has been paid to emerging major cities. In addition, findings from these studies have resulted from the perspectives of either planning entities’ representatives or representatives of the communities associated with open space encroachment. This implies the absence of a systemic and multi-stakeholder engagement. This article contributes towards bridging these observed gaps through the elicitation of multi-stakeholder perspectives on the enablers of urban public open space encroachment in major cities, using a Mangaung Metropolitan exemplar. Adopting a qualitative case study research design, data were gathered using semi-structured interviews and focus-group interviews. Participants were purposively recruited from Mangaung Metropolitan Municipality planning department and community members residing in Freedom Square township, Bloemfontein. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. Significant enablers identified include low levels of sustainability literacy, low levels of citizen participation in the planning process, and planners’ inability to manage extant value conflicts. The findings from this study contribute to a broader study that seeks to develop an urban open space planning and management framework for forestalling the incidence of encroachment in major cities. Accordingly, this study’s findings have practical implications for relevant planning stakeholders who are keen on curbing the incidence of urban open space encroachment in South African townships.</p> Lindelwa Sinxadi, Bankole Awuzie, Maléne Campbell Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Regional resilience in peripheral South Africa: The Northern Cape case <p>The role of regional policy mechanisms towards increased regional resilience is widely recognised, but limited consideration is given to the impact of these mechanisms in, specifically, the peripheral region. In reaction hereto, this article explores the role of three key mechanisms, <em>i.e.</em> economic sectoral composition, innovation and knowledge networks, as well as government institutions as policy tools towards increased regional resilience in a peripheral region in South Africa. The role of each of these mechanisms is quantified and measured by specified indices such as the GVA, the Tress Index and the ICT Access Index, and government indicators such as audit outcomes and service delivery data in five planning regions of the Northern Cape province. This article highlights that a state of dynamic stability and resilience is more feasible through policy intervention focused on these three mechanisms, coupled with detailed regional socio-economic analysis. It also emphasises that a knowledge-rich region will be less dependent on single sector development, pushing itself into a new development stage of secondary and tertiary sector focus through economic diversification, lessening its vulnerability to external shocks and disturbances, and impeding regional lock-in. In support hereto, collective institutional action by a responsive and accountable local and regional government, operating beyond their functional limits, will reinforce and amplify development in the peripheral region.</p> Mariske van Aswegen, Francois Pieter Retief, Ernst Drewes Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Scoping the nexus between climate change and water-security realities in rural South Africa <p>While the global response to climate change has been scant and uncoordinated, especially with regard to providing adequate water resources for the most improvised, water scarcity has become an increasingly neglected phenomenon in rural areas. The long-term imbalance resulting from the water demand exceeding the available water resources has been identified in the literature, with the majority of rural dwellers negatively affected by water scarcity. Using a scoping review technique to explore the nexus between climate change and water-security realities in view of coping and planning mechanisms in the South African context, 246,443 articles published between 2010 and 2019 were collated and reviewed in a bid to ascertain the state of knowledge, study, and focus on the coping and planning strategies adopted by rural communities in the face of climate change-induced water insecurity in South Africa. The identified gaps in the literature indicate the omission of spatial planning principles in responding to water-scarcity issues. This review concludes that, although policy research that links the impacts of climate change in rural communities exists, stronger focus on the quality and quantity issues in the implementation of water-security matters is critical. Hence, the impact of climate change on climate-sensitive supplies available in these rural areas as well as the consequent coping and planning alternatives for rural communities require a more robust policy and spatial research. Thus, as rural communities deal with the impacts of climate change, implementation cycles of water-security measures need to be ensured along with further integration of spatial planning issues in rural areas. Hence, a deeper engagement with spatial planning issues is needed, in order to further mitigate and address the impacts of climate change on water security in rural areas.</p> Patrick Hosea, Ernest Khalema Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Reflections on how the implementation of sustainable development goals across the UK and Ireland can influence the mainstreaming of these goals in English planning practice <p>The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are an ambitious and voluntary undertaking by governments to implement sustainable development. Many countries have been pursuing a process of localisation, in which local and regional priorities are rooted in the implementation of the SDGs. The UK’s implementation of SDGs has been hindered by its governance arrangements and the perspective that they are primarily for developing countries. A review of official UK parliamentary reports from 2016 to 2020 and the government’s Voluntary National Review (H.M. Government, 2019) have highlighted a knowledge gap and inconsistency in the implementation of the SDGs. Years of perma-reform in planning, resulting in policy turbulence, have further retarded their adoption in England. Devolution has led to a divergence in planning practice across the UK. The approach outside of England has been much more proactive. This article seeks to bridge this knowledge gap by reflecting on practice in the UK and Ireland and how this might influence the mainstreaming of the SDGs in future planning practice in England.</p> P.J. Geraghty Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Building resilience to climate change in vulnerable communities: A case study of uMkhanyakude district municipality <p>Climate change in South Africa remains an issue of socio-economic and environmental concern. An increase in frequency and intensity of climatic events pose significant threats to biophysical and socio-economic aspects, namely food security, water resources, agriculture, biodiversity, tourism, and poverty. In order to counteract the socio-economic and environmental concerns pertaining to issues of climate change, emergent insights on climate change strategies suggest that building resilience in human and environmental systems is an ideal way of combating dynamic environmental conditions and future uncertainties. Using the qualitative secondary data approach, this article evaluates whether vulnerable communities in uMkhanyakude District Municipality can become resilient to the implications of climate change. UMkhanyakude District Municipality is predominantly rural and one of the most impoverished districts in KwaZulu-Natal, with the majority of socially and economically marginalised individuals and households experiencing more severe impacts as a result of climate change compared to those in urban areas. Data was analysed using content analysis and a concise summary of the biophysical and socio-economic aspects is presented. This research suggests that building resilience to climate change is possible when bottom-up, proactive and systematic measures are taken to manage vulnerable areas such as those in uMkhanyakude District Municipality. It recommends that social impact assessments (SIA) be conducted to assist in terms of assessing social consequences that are likely to follow from policy actions.</p> Anele Mthembu, Syathokoza Hlophe Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Trends in urban planning, climate adaptation and resilience in Zanzibar, Tanzania <p>Over recent decades, there has been substantial change in Zanzibar, due to, among others, global climate change impacts. The semi-autonomous polity faces challenges to foster resilient urban communities and planning for mitigation and adaptation to climate change, not least because of its island nature and rapid urbanization. This article addresses urban and environmental planning measures from 2010 to 2020 aimed at confronting the impacts of climate change and working toward resilience and adaptation in urban Zanzibar. The study was conducted between June and August 2020, and primarily involved a combination of desktop studies, online discussions, and virtual meetings with key actors in the land, climate, and disaster risk policy and governance aspects in Zanzibar. The review provides information on the current responses to policy, legal and institutional setup in terms of the key issues related to land use, climate and disaster risk reduction in Zanzibar. Thematic analysis was used to connect land-use planning, climate adaptation, and disaster risk reduction documentation of the situational assessment, determination and respective recommendations concerning land use and climate adaptation. It is argued that planning for climate change requires greater social will, financial investment, and the conversion of science to policy than currently exists in Zanzibar. Dynamic individual and governmental efforts and select community engagement are likely insufficient to produce resilience, as large-scale donor-funded climate adaptation interventions are largely top-down in orientation and often miss out on local community-oriented climate solutions. Smaller NGOs are more practical for understanding and addressing community-oriented priorities to support climate-resilient initiatives and enhance local livelihood priorities and participation against climate impacts, including natural disasters and everyday degradation. The article concludes with policy recommendations both specific to Zanzibar and relevant across the region.</p> Garth Myers, Jonathan Walz, Aboud Jumbe Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Land use land cover change and land surface emissivity in Ibadan, Nigeria <p>There are many drivers of climate change. The urbanization process has been adjudged to be one of the major factors influencing spatial variation in land use and land cover change (LULC), land surface temperature (LST), land surface emissivity (LSE), increasing greenhouse gases emission, and climate change. This article uses a multispectral satellite remote sensing and survey-based approach to examine the nexus of LULC and LSE in the Ibadan city region, Nigeria. The spectral reflectance, the sun angle spectral radiance of the Landsat imageries (2000, 2010, 2018) was corrected and converted from digital number. The LULC, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Built-Up Index (NDBI), LSE and LST were obtained from the analysis of Landsat imageries. From the findings, temperature increase was identified as a peculiar environmental issue. Analysis of the Landsat imageries revealed that the NDVI value increased from 0.44 in 2000 to 0.47 in 2018. The NDBI values showed that built-up areas in the core of the urban areas have the highest NDBI values (0.023-0.602). The spatio-temporal trends of LST were related to the changes in LULC, and the built-up area had the highest LSE. The maximum LST (43°C) was observed in the year 2018 at the core area of the city where building density was highest. The study suggests an application of cool pavements, green development, and urban forest regeneration for sustainable development.</p> Oluwasinaayomi Kasim, Samuel Agbola, Michael Oweniwe Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Building a food-resilient city through urban agriculture: The case of Ilorin, Nigeria <p>The rise in urban population, accompanied by growing poverty and hunger, has triggered debates on the relevance of urban agriculture in addressing the challenges of food insecurity in urban centres. This article examines the effects of urban planning practice on urban agriculture (UA) in Ilorin, Nigeria, and how it has contributed to improving the resilience of the city to food shock. Adopting a cross-sectional survey design, primary and secondary data were used. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain primary data from randomly selected urban farmers. Secondary data were obtained from the publications of the Central Bank of Nigeria, the National Bureau of Statistics, and the Food and Agricultural Organization. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistical techniques. Respondents’ Agreement Index (RAI) was used to measure the variables influencing the performance of UA. Findings revealed that UA contributed 16.9% to meat/fish/egg requirements in the city; 4.5% to yam/cassava/potato requirements; 0.58% to vegetable requirements; 0.6% to fruit requirements, and 0.5% to grain requirements. RAI results indicated poor access to finance (0.93), limited land area (0.75), and lack of tenure security (0.44) as the dominant variables influencing the poor contribution of UA to food security. It is recommended that UA be integrated into urban planning and that more land for farming be provided.</p> Akeem Ola Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Introducing the Green Book: A practical planning tool for adapting South African settlements to climate change <p>The Green Book is not a book, but a novel, practical online planning tool to support the adaptation of South African settlements to the impacts of climatic changes and severe events. It provides evidence of current and future (2050) climate risks and vulnerability for every local municipality in South Africa (including settlements) in the form of climate-change projections, multidimensional vulnerability indicators, population-growth projections, and climate hazard and impact modelling. Based on this evidence, the Green Book developed a menu of planning-related adaptation actions and offers support in the selection of appropriate actions from this menu to be integrated into local development strategies and plans. The second half of this article describes the steps involved in the process of developing and structuring this menu of actions and explains how the information contained in the Green Book can be used to promote the planning of climate-resilient settlements in South Africa.</p> Willemien van Niekerk, Amy Pieterse, Alize le Roux Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0200 From the guest editor <p>Indication of a climatic change is ubiquitous. Cities and communities in both South Africa and Africa are increasingly susceptible to the negative aspects of climate change, which are expected to increase in frequency and intensity, with extreme events such as floods, drought, water stress, rise in sea level, heatwaves and storms, which are highest on the list of exposure to economic and social risks in cities (World Bank, 2019). Concurrently, socio-economic and demographic developments can make cities and communities more vulnerable. These will have profound impacts on a wide range of city and community functions, infrastructure and services such as energy, transport, water, sanitation, and health, and will affect the quality of life. The National Climate Change Response (NCCR) outlines challenges in relation to inertia and risks created by existing investment in infrastructure and mechanisms of service delivery that may not be well adapted to a changing climate. In light of the aforementioned, there is an urgent need for cities and communities to invest in long-term mitigation and preventive measures, in order to improve their resilience.</p> Hangwelani Hope Magidimisha Copyright (c) 2020 Wed, 30 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0200