Climate change and disaster preparedness issues in Eastern Cape and Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18820/2415-0495/trp81i1.5

Keywords:

climate change, climate literacy, disasters, disaster preparedness, early warnings, preparedness plans, urban planning, unplanned urbanisation

Abstract

This article sought to review the literature on the effectiveness of the disaster preparedness plans in two provinces that were struck by climate-induced disasters in South Africa in 2022. Making use of a qualitative desktop study, the effects of urbanisation and infrastructure development on the deadly disasters of April 2022 were examined, using thematic analyses. The review reveals a complex combination of the causes of disaster in both KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Cape, which included unplanned urbanisation; ineffective warning systems; inadequate infrastructure, and houses being built on floodplains, in wetland, and in coastal areas. The lack of climate knowledge among government officials and communities prone to climate-induced disasters was considered to have led to the severe devastating effects of the April 2022 disasters. These challenges were compounded by the failure of municipal officials to harness learnings from the rich indigenous knowledge systems of the vulnerable groups and to reverse impacts of the disasters. The article summarises the causes, challenges, impacts, and solutions that can be considered to plan for disaster preparedness.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

ABUNYEWAH, M., GAJENDRAN, T., MAUND, K. & OKYERE, S.A. 2020. Strengthening the information deficit model for disaster preparedness: Mediating and moderating effects of community participation. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 46, article number 101492. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101492.

ADIYOSO, W. & KANEGAE, H. 2014. The role of Islamic teachings in encouraging people to take tsunami preparedness in Aceh and Yogyakarta Indonesia. In R. Shaw (Ed.), Recovery from the Indian Ocean tsunami: A ten-year journey (pp. 259-278). Tokyo, Japan: Springer Japan.

AMOAKO, C. & FRIMPONG BOAMAH, E. 2015. The three-dimensional causes of flooding in Accra, Ghana. International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development, 7(1), pp. 109-129.

ANDREWS, R.J. & QUINTANA, L.M. 2015. Unpredictable, unpreventable and impersonal medicine: Global disaster response in the 21st century. The EPMA Journal, 6(1), p. 2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13167-014-0024-9.

ATREYA, A., CZAJKOWSKI, J., BOTZEN, W., BUSTAMANTE, G., CAMPBELL, K., COLLIER, B., IANNI, F., KUNREUTHER, H., MICHEL-KERJAN, E. & MONTGOMERY, M., 2017. Adoption of flood preparedness actions: A household level study in rural communities in Tabasco, Mexico. International journal of disaster risk reduction, 24, pp.428-438.

BIRKMANN, J., BUCKLE, P., JAEGER, J., PELLING, M., SETIADI, N., GARSCHAGEN, M. ET AL. 2008. Extreme events and disasters: A window of opportunity for change? Analysis of organizational, institutional and political changes, formal and informal responses after mega-disasters. Natural Hazards, 55(3), pp. 637-655. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11069-008-9319-2.

BOPAPE, M.J.M., SEBEGO, E., NDARANA, T., MASEKO, B., NETSHILEMA, M., GIJBEN, M., LANDMAN, S., PHADULI, E., RAMBUWANI, G., VAN HEMERT, L. & MKHWANAZI, M., 2021. Evaluating South African weather service information on idai tropical cyclone and KwaZulu-natal flood events. South African Journal of Science, 117(3-4), pp.1-13.

BOTHA, D., VAN NIEKERK, D., WENTINK, G.J. ET AL. 2011. Disaster risk management status assessment at municipalities in South Africa. Report presented to the South African Local Government Association, North West University, Potchefstroom, p. 108.

Chari, M.M., Hamandawana, H. & Zhou, L., 2018. Using geostatistical techniques to map adaptive capacities of resource-poor communities to climate change: a case study of Nkonkobe local municipality, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management.

CITIES ALLIANCE. 2009. Can adapting to climate change also meet development goals in cities in developing countries? CIVIS 2. Human Settlements Group at the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). Available at: http://www.citiesalliance.org/ca/sites/citiesalliance.org/files/CA_Docs/CIVIS_09.pdf [Accessed on 17 February 2010].

COBBINAH, P.B. 2017. Managing cities and resolving conflicts: Local people’s attitudes towards urban planning in Kumasi, Ghana. Land use policy, 68, pp.222-231.

COBBINAH, P.B. AND DARKWAH, R.M. 2017. Urban planning and politics in Ghana. GeoJournal, 82(6), pp.1229-124.

CUTTER, S.L., BARNES, L., BERRY, M., BURTON, C., EVANS, E., TATE, E. ET AL. 2008. A place-based model for understanding community resilience to natural disasters. Global Environmental Change, 18, article number 598e606.

DALU, M.T., SHACKLETON, C.M. & DALU, T. 2018. Influence of land cover, proximity to streams and household topographical location on flooding impact in informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. International journal of disaster risk reduction, 28, pp.481-490.

DHIMAN, R., VISHNURADHAN, R., ELDHO, T.I. & INAMDAR, A. 2019. Flood risk and adaptation in Indian coastal cities: Recent scenarios. Applied Water Science, 9(1), p. 5.

DOUGLAS, I., ALAM, K., MAGHENDA, M., MCDONNELL, Y., MCLEAN, L. & CAMPBELL, J. 2008. Unjust waters: Climate change, flooding and the urban poor in Africa. Environment & Urbanization, 20, article number 187e205.

DUBE, K. & NHAMO, G. 2020a. Evidence and impact of climate change on South African national parks: Potential implications for tourism in the Kruger National Park. Environmental Development, 33, pp. 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envdev.2019.100485

DUBE, K. & NHAMO, G. 2020b. Vulnerability of nature-based tourism to climate variability and change: Case of Kariba resort town, Zimbabwe. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, 29, article number 100281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jort.2020.100281.

EASTON, D. 1953. The Political System: An Inquiry into the State of Political Science, Alfred A. Knoff. Inc., New York.

ENGELBRECHT, F., LE ROUX., A., VOGEL, C. & MBIYOZO, A-N. 2022. With every second city and town projected to suffer increased flooding, South Africa must be better prepared. Daily Maverick, 12 May. Available at: https://issafrica.org/iss-today/is-climate-change-to-blame-for-kwazulu-natals-flood-damage. Accessed on 29 July 2022.

FALING, W., TEMPELHOFF, J.W. & VAN NIEKERK, D. 2012. Rhetoric or action: Are South African municipalities planning for climate change? Development Southern Africa, 29(2), pp. 241-257.

FATTI, C.E. & PATEL, Z. 2013. Perceptions and responses to urban flood risk: Implications for climate governance in the South. Applied Geography, 36, pp. 13-22.

FITCHETT, J.M., GRANT, B. & HOOGENDOORN, G. 2016. Climate change threats to two low-lying South African coastal towns: Risks and perceptions. South African Journal of Science, 112(5/6), article number 2015-0262. http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/sajs.2016/20150262.

GOVERNMENT OF SOUTH AFRICA. 2022. KZN flood victims to get temporary accommodation by weekend. Available at: https://www.sanews.gov.za/south-africa/kzn-flood-victims-get-temporary-accommodation-weekend> [Accessed: 5May, 2022].

HAGELSTEEN, M. & BECKER, P. 2013. Challenging disparities in capacity development for disaster risk reduction. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 3, pp. 4-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2012.11.001.

HAGELSTEEN, M. & BURKE, J. 2016. Practical aspects of capacity development in the context of disaster risk reduction. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 16, pp. 43-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2016.01.010.

HALLEGATTE, S., GREEN, C., NICHOLLS, R.J. & CORFEE-MORLOT, J. 2013. Future flood losses in major coastal cities. Nature Climate Change, 3(9), pp. 802-806.

HANDAYANI, W., FISHER, M.R., RUDIARTO, I., SETYONO, J.S. & FOLEY, D. 2019. Operationalizing resilience: A content analysis of flood disaster planning in two coastal cities in Central Java, Indonesia. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 35, article number 101073. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2019.101073.

HARVATT, J., PETTS, J. & CHILVERS, J. 2011. Understanding householder responses to natural hazards: Flooding and sea-level rise comparisons. Journal of Risk Research, 14(1), pp. 63-83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/ 13669877.2010.503935.

HOFFMAN, M.T., CARRICK, P.J., GILLSON, L. & WEST, A.G. 2009. Drought, climate change and vegetation response in the succulent karoo, South Africa. South African Journal of Science, 105(1), pp.54-60.

HOFFMANN, R. & MUTTARAK, R. 2017. Learn from the past, prepare for the future: Impacts of education and experience on disaster preparedness in the Philippines and Thailand. World Development, 96, pp. 32-51.

HOFFMANN, R. AND MUTTARAK, R. 2017. Learn from the Past, Prepare for the Future: Impacts of Education and Experience on Disaster Preparedness in the Philippines and Thailand, World Development Volume, 96: 32-51.

IFRC. 2022. South Africa KwaZulu-Natal floods – emergency appeal no. MDRZA012 – operational strategy. ReliefWeb. Available at: https://reliefweb.int/report/south-africa/south-africa-kwazulu-natal-floods-emergency-appeal-no-mdrza012-operational-strategy [Accessed on 19 July 2022].

IOL. 2022. Costs related to KZN floods stands at R17 billion. Available at: https://www.iol.co.za/mercury/news/costs-related-to-kzn-floods-stands-at-r17-billion-ca130329-5caa-40c68f29-346cd0f51397>[Accessed 5 May 2022].

KOCH, I., VOGEL, C.H. & PATEL, Z. 2007. Institutional dynamics and climate change adaptation in South Africa. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 12, article number 1323e1339.

KOHN, S., EATON, J.L., FEROZ, S., BAINBRIDGE, A.A., HOOLACHAN, J. & BARNETT, D.J. 2012. Personal disaster preparedness: An integrative review of the literature. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, 6(3), pp. 217-231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/dmp.2012.47.

KUNGUMA, O. 2022. Opinion: KZN floods expose significant socio-economic and environmental vulnerabilities. University of the Free State. Available at: https://www.ufs.ac.za/templates/news-archive-item/campus-news/2022/april/opinion-kzn-floods-expose-significant-socio-economic-and-environmental-vulnerabilities [Accessed on 01 May 2022].

MA, Z., GUO, S., DENG, X. & XU, D. 2021. Community resilience and resident’s disaster preparedness: Evidence from China’s earthquake-stricken areas. Natural Hazards, 108(1), pp. 567-591. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-021-04695-9.

MA, Z., GUO, S., DENG, X. & XU, D. 2021. Community resilience and resident's disaster preparedness: evidence from China's earthquake-stricken areas. Natural hazards, 108(1), pp.567-591.

MASINGA, F.N., MAHARAJ, P. & NZIMA, D. 2021. Adapting to changing climatic conditions: perspectives and experiences of women in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Development in Practice, 31(8), pp.1002-1013.

MCNEILL, G. & BRYDEN, D., 2013. Do either early warning systems or emergency response teams improve hospital patient survival? A systematic review. Resuscitation, 84(12), pp.1652-1667.

MICELI, R., SOTGIU, I. & SETTANNI, M. 2008. Disaster preparedness and perception of flood risk: A study in an Alpine valley in Italy. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 28, pp. 164-173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2007.10.006.

MISHRA, S. & SUAR, D. 2007. Do lessons people learn determine disaster cognition and preparedness? Psychology & Developing Societies, 19(2), pp. 143-159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/097133360701900201.

MOSES KOTANE INSTITUTE. 2022. The assessment of the effects of floods on KwaZulu-Natal residents.

MUSYOKI, A., THIFHUFHELWI, R. & MURUNGWENI, F.M. 2016. The impact of and responses to flooding in Thulamela Municipality, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Jàmbá: Journal of Disaster Risk Studies, 8(2), article number 166. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v8i2.166.

NONJINGE, G., 2019. Are South Africans prepared to confront climate change?. Afrobarometer Dispatch No. 295 >[Accessed: 3 May 2018].

PAUL, J. & CRIADO, A.R. 2020. The art of writing literature review: What do we know and what do we need to know? International Business Review, 29(4), article number 101717. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2020.101717.

PENG, L., XU, D. AND WANG, X. 2019. Vulnerability of rural household livelihood to climate variability and adaptive strategies in landslide-threatened western mountainous regions of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China. Climate and Development, 11(6), pp.469-484.

PRICE, R.K. & VOJINOVIC, Z. 2008. Case study: Urban flood management. Urban Water Journal, 5(3), article number 259e276.

REININGER, B.M., RAHBAR, M.H., LEE, M., CHEN, Z., ALAM, S.R., POPE, J. & ADAMS, B., 2013. Social capital and disaster preparedness among low income Mexican Americans in a disaster prone area. Social Science & Medicine, 83, pp.50-60.

RYAN, B., JOHNSTON, K.A., TAYLOR, M. & MCANDREW, R. 2020. Community engagement for disaster preparedness: A systematic literature review. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 49, article number 01655. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2020.101655.

SHREVE, C.M. & KELMAN, I. 2014. Does mitigation save? Reviewing cost-benefit analyses of disaster risk reduction. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 10(Part A), pp. 213-235. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.ijdrr.2014.08.004.

SINGH, J.A., THALHEIMER, L., VAN AALST, M., LI11, S., SUN12, J., VECCHI12, G. ET AL. Climate change exacerbated rainfall causing devastating flooding in eastern South Africa.

SINGLETON, A. T., AND REASON, C. J. C. 2007. Variability in the characteristics of cut-off low pressure systems over subtropical southern Africa. Int. J. Climatol, 27, PP. 295–310. doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.1399.

SOUTH AFRICA (2002) Disaster Management Act, 2002 (Act 57 of 2002). Pretoria: Government Printer.

TANAKA, K. 2005. The impact of disaster education on public preparation and mitigation for earthquakes: a cross-country comparison between Fukui, Japan and the San Francisco Bay Area, California, USA. Applied Geography, 25(3), pp.201-225.

TWUMASI, Y.A., MEREM, E.C., AYALA-SILVA, T., OSEI, A., PETJA, B.M. & ALEXANDER, K., 2017. Techniques of remote sensing and GIS as tools for visualizing impact of climate change-induced flood in the Southern African region. American Journal of Climate Change, 6(2), pp.306-327.

UNITED NATIONS OFFICE FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION (UNISDR). 2005. Hyogo framework for action 2005–2015: Building the resilience of nations and communities to disasters. United Nations, Geneva, Switzerland.

VAN DER KEUR, P., VAN BERS, C., HENRIKSEN, H.J., NIBANUPUDI, H.K., YADAV, S., WIJAYA, R. ET AL. 2016. Identification and analysis of uncertainty in disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in South and Southeast Asia. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 16, pp. 208-214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2016.03.002

VAN NIEKERK, D. & ANNANDALE, E. 2013. Utilising participatory research techniques for community-based disaster risk assessment. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 31(2), pp. 160-177.

VOGEL, C., MOSER, S.C., KASPERSON, R.E. & DABELKO, G.D. 2007. Linking vulnerability, adaptation, and resilience science to practice: Pathways, players and partnerships. Global Environmental Change, 17, article number 349e364.

WENTINK, G.J. & VAN NIEKERK, D. 2017. The capacity of personnel in disaster risk management in South African municipalities. The Journal for Transdisciplinary Research in Southern Africa, 13(1), a427. https://doi.org/10.4102/td.v13i1.427.

WOOD, M.M., MILETI, D.S., KANO, M., KELLEY, M.M., REGAN, R. & BOURQUE, L.B. 2012. Communicating actionable risk for terrorism and other hazards. Risk Analysis, 32(4), pp. 601-615. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2011.01645.x

ZWANE, E. & MTHEMBU, N., 2017. The adaptive capacity of smallholder mixed-farming systems to the impact of climate change: The case of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. Jàmbá: Journal of Disaster Risk Studies, 9(1), pp.1-9. https://doi.org/ 10.4102/jamba.v9i1.469.

Published

2022-12-15

How to Cite

Ngcamu, B. (2022) “Climate change and disaster preparedness issues in Eastern Cape and Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa”, Town and Regional Planning, 81, pp. 53-66. doi: 10.18820/2415-0495/trp81i1.5.

Issue

Section

Articles