Town and Regional Planning 2018-12-11T10:56:57+02:00 Prof. Das Steyn Open Journal Systems <p><em>Town and Regional Planning</em>&nbsp;is a South African accredited journal for independently adjudicated research articles on applicable topics in town, urban and regional planning.</p> Incidental great public spaces and the role of urban design in South Africa 2018-12-11T10:52:52+02:00 Dario Schoulund Karina Landman <p>Urban Design in South Africa as a formal profession has a relatively short history.&nbsp;However, in practice, there have been many examples of what must be considered&nbsp;both good and bad Urban Design. There have also been numerous debates at&nbsp;universities and conferences on what Urban Design should be. However, in the&nbsp;constant making and re-making of urban and rural space, Urban Design has a&nbsp;tenuous and weak presence. This article interrogates the rather low profile of Urban&nbsp;Design in the country and why it is not growing or better positioned compared to&nbsp;other countries. This is done through a discussion of three cases that illustrate the&nbsp;often incidental making of great public spaces in contrast to the thoroughly planned&nbsp;approach. The article argues that spontaneous projects of high quality, rather&nbsp;than over-planned projects, where shortcomings result from this preoccupation&nbsp;to rationalise, often have a greater potential to strengthen the role and value of&nbsp;Urban Design. Such an approach would favour incremental, flexible and sensitive&nbsp;proposals and interventions where spontaneity and adaptation are recognised and&nbsp;celebrated, as well as support the notion that urban design should set a framework&nbsp;for many role players to respond to in shaping the city.&nbsp;</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Small ideas for big impacts: Multifunctionality in the rural village of Verkykerskop 2018-12-11T10:53:15+02:00 Jako Viviers <p>Nijkamp affirms the Utopians’ claim of an open and flexible future, where&nbsp;development could imply surprising steps towards something better. Castells&nbsp;questions admonishingly whether planning approaches are changeable in a world&nbsp;that has already changed. Following Davidoff’s indications of making urban life&nbsp;beautiful, exciting and creative, planners encounter “surprising steps” within the&nbsp;planning approaches of compact cities, new urbanism, new ruralism, smart growth,&nbsp;green urbanism, and so on. In responding to Castells’ “multidimensional change&nbsp;in the spatial dimension”, the imagination of planners is intercepted, angling them&nbsp;towards a multifunctional planning advent. This article reasons that a combination of&nbsp;the new urbanism, green urbanism and new ruralism may be a beneficial response&nbsp;to multifunctionality, especially as megatrends emphasise the need to abandon the&nbsp;pursuit of a predictable single future or outcome. It questions whether the reciprocal&nbsp;use of these planning approaches may induce multifunctional rural landscapes.&nbsp;The uniqueness of the inherently rural South African landscape also necessitates&nbsp;a rural emphasis in this article, questioning whether the reciprocal use of the three&nbsp;planning approaches in the recently planned rural village of Verkykerskop, acclaimed&nbsp;by the Charter for New Urbanism in 2012, generated multifunctional rural land use.&nbsp;</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Conceptual commentary of public spaces in Durban, South Africa 2018-12-11T10:54:42+02:00 Magdalena Cloete Salena Yusuf <p>Within the context of African cities that are considered to have poor economic&nbsp;prospects and are failing its inhabitants, this article explores and assesses the quality&nbsp;of Durban’s open public spaces through a phenomenological lens, by applying the&nbsp;concept of the sociality of public space and drawing on different theorists’ ideas of&nbsp;what constitutes a good open public space. Various factors have led to the corrosion&nbsp;of open public spaces, including modernism and globalisation and their resultant&nbsp;effects as well as spatial apartheid in South Africa. The following theories are used&nbsp;to understand open public spaces: Jacob’s “eyes on the street”, which supports safer&nbsp;public spaces; Massey’s theory of thrown-togetherness, which&nbsp; advocates for a range&nbsp;of different elements present in public spaces, and Parkinson’s democracy of public&nbsp;space, which encompasses the way in which people express themselves in public&nbsp;spaces. The research methodology includes a literature review, phenomenological&nbsp;ethnographic observations, mapping, and drawing with written narrative. The spaces&nbsp;considered in the study include a range of Durban’s successful and less successful&nbsp;public spaces, including the beachfront, parks, gardens, and a public square. The&nbsp;article concludes that open public spaces are a necessity for quality civic life and are&nbsp;still considered a luxury in Africa.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, shade and natural daylight in South African town planning, with emphasis on Pretoria 2018-12-11T10:55:28+02:00 Dirk Conradie <p>A bioclimatic analysis of different South African towns and cities indicates that,&nbsp;if the correct mix of passive design principles is used, they all have a significant&nbsp;passive design potential. Of all such measures, solar protection and shading is&nbsp;the single most important passive design measure to reduce energy usage and&nbsp;to improve internal comfort for buildings in all South African climatic regions.&nbsp;The correct design of public open spaces and streets facilitates, to a great&nbsp;extent, energy-efficient buildings, whilst at the same time providing functional&nbsp;and comfortable urban open spaces and streets. Passive solar buildings aim to&nbsp;maintain interior thermal comfort throughout the sun’s diurnal and annual cycles,&nbsp;whilst reducing the requirement for active heating and cooling systems. The aim of&nbsp;this article is to investigate the effect of climate zones on passive design potential,&nbsp;of which shading design is an integral part, using Pretoria as a case study. This&nbsp;includes the effect of street width, building height, street layout,&nbsp; orientation, and&nbsp;the amount of sunlight available for trees and plants in the urban environment.&nbsp;The Spatial Planning and Land Management Act (2013), City of Tshwane Land&nbsp;Use Management By-law (2016) and the Tshwane Town-Planning Scheme 2008&nbsp;(Revised 2014) were used as regulatory framework. To support the research, an&nbsp;Early Design Phase (EDP) experimental research platform was used to investigate&nbsp;the amount of sunlight on building facades with different orientations. This method&nbsp;enables the calculation of shading angles where there is a balance between the&nbsp;hot periods (requiring cooling) and cool periods (requiring heating) from the urban&nbsp;and building perspective. This has been achieved by means of the development&nbsp;of analytical software that uses weather files as one of the inputs to calculate&nbsp;critical solar angles. Over and above the calculation of current building solar&nbsp;protection angles, this method also facilitates the calculation of the increase in&nbsp;solar protection that will be required with climate change such as with the expected&nbsp;A2 climate change scenario (business-as-usual scenario) for South Africa. To&nbsp;support the EDP analysis, detailed simulations were also undertaken by means&nbsp;of Ecotect v5.60.</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Housing as urbanism: A policy to discourage urban sprawl and provide well-located and affordable housing in South Africa 2018-12-11T10:55:56+02:00 Brendon van Niekerk <p>The concept of ‘housing as urbanism’ considers the social, political and economic&nbsp;components of housing, which, in reality, translates to housing that is closer to&nbsp;employment, municipal services, public spaces, healthcare, schooling facilities and&nbsp;social services, while also providing the household with the physical infrastructure&nbsp;necessary for a good quality of life. These considerations have not been included&nbsp;in the mass roll-out of low-income housing programmes by the South African&nbsp;government to date. A series of case studies show that, in South Africa, a more&nbsp;compact urban form does not necessarily lead to one that is less expensive than a&nbsp;sprawled urban form, due to infrastructure thresholds, capacities, location, land-use&nbsp;mix, and density variations over time and space. Due to the complex interrelations&nbsp;between land values in space, the costs of buildings and urban services, the&nbsp;relative cost of transport and the excess capacities in infrastructure systems, a&nbsp;simple dichotomous ‘sprawled’ versus ‘compact’ approach to housing location and&nbsp;urban development is not appropriate. Investigations of individual sites need to be&nbsp;performed, in order to understand the social, political and economic benefits, which&nbsp;will accrue to the households from their location in the city. The case studies also<br>indicate that, over the long term, the overall cost of housing developments that are&nbsp;better located, subscribing broadly to the principles of ‘housing as urbanism’, is&nbsp;likely to be less expensive to municipalities and the development’s residents than&nbsp;poorly located, sprawled housing developments. Decisions taken which consider&nbsp;the principles of ‘housing as urbanism’ can help create a more efficient urban form,&nbsp;freeing up resources for both urban residents and public-sector organisations.&nbsp;</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Upgrading informal settlements in South Africa: A partnership-based approach Edited by: Liza Rose Cirolia, Tristan Görgens, Mirjam van Donk, Warren Smit and Scott Drimie 2018-12-11T10:56:57+02:00 Thomas Stewart <p>The upgrading of informal settlements has become one of the most&nbsp;comprehensive, complex, controversial, capital-intensive, and often&nbsp;emotive developmental interventions orchestrated and funded by the&nbsp;South African public sector. Many initiatives, however, happen without&nbsp;there being meaningful collaboration between the various role players.&nbsp;In this publication, some of the ‘cutting-edge’ initiatives and a revisit to&nbsp;proven practices and debates are discussed and generously supported&nbsp;by case studies, experience, evidence, and appropriate examples.&nbsp;This is further enhanced by the collaborative effort of the diversity of authors&nbsp;who have managed to simplify and capture the essence of the subject&nbsp;matter in such a way that it can be applied in the formulation of policy.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2018-12-31T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##