Acta Structilia http://journals.ufs.ac.za/index.php/as <p><em>Acta Structilia</em> is a South African accredited journal and publishes peer reviewed articles on any topic in the field of the physical and development sciences (i.e. architecture, quantity surveying, construction management, project management, building economy, engineering and property development).&nbsp;</p> University of the Free State en-US Acta Structilia 1023-0564 <p><strong>Copyright: </strong>Copyright is transferred to the author(s) when an article is accepted for publication.<br><strong><strong><strong>Publishing rights</strong>: </strong></strong>When an author/s publish an article in <em>Acta Structilia</em>, the author/s enter into a non-exclusive publishing agreement. This means that author/s may upload a second copy to institutional repositories.</p> <p><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/"><img src="https://www.sajs.co.za/public/site/images/assafspu/CCby.png"></a><br>All articles are published under a&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution Licence (CC BY 4.0)</a>; readers are welcome to reproduce, share and adapt the content without permission provided the source is attributed.</p> <p><strong>Disclaimer:</strong> Views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the author(s). Publication thereof does not indicate that the Editorial Staff or the University of the Free State accept responsibility for it.</p> Adoption of Building Information Modelling in the construction industry in Kenya http://journals.ufs.ac.za/index.php/as/article/view/3617 <p>The current implementation of Building Information Modelling (BIM) by construction professionals in the Kenyan construction industry is an area of concern. BIM is increasingly being applied worldwide to improve communication between project stakeholders, visualization of design, detect potential clashes, reduced redesign during project implementation, improve design quality, reduce costs, and improve the rate of return for projects. However, the application of BIM in the Kenyan construction industry is still lagging, resulting in poor co-ordination of information among construction project stakeholders. This study determines the current state of BIM application, the benefits of BIM application and the BIM application barriers in Kenya. A quantitative research approach was used and data was collected, using an online questionnaire survey from 310 registered construction professionals selected by stratified sampling. The benefits and barriers factors that influence BIM application in Kenya were rated and set as the independent variables with ‘years of experience’ and ‘total completed projects’ as the dependent variables. The data was analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to extract the main factors for benefits and barriers of BIM implementation. Chi-square tests were used to determine relationships between independent and dependent variables. Improved communication was ranked as the most important BIM benefit, while the high cost of buying and updating software was ranked as the main barrier to the application of BIM. Based on the results of the study, improved design quality is influenced by the number of&nbsp;years of experience one has in the building construction industry. The number of&nbsp;projects undertaken by a company using BIM in any capacity has an influence&nbsp;on greater productivity, due to easy retrieval of information. It is recommended&nbsp;that BIM training should be undertaken by software vendors in vocational and&nbsp;tertiary institutions as well as in construction firms. In addition, the government&nbsp;should formulate policies and standards to support the use of BIM. This study&nbsp;adds to the body of knowledge about BIM application in Nairobi, Kenya that&nbsp;is beneficial to developers, architects, engineers, quantity surveyors, project&nbsp;managers, contractors, and facility managers.</p> Mutonyi Nasila Chris Cloete ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 25 2 1 38 10.18820/24150487/as25i2.1 Factors influencing the performance of safety programmes in the Ghanaian construction industry http://journals.ufs.ac.za/index.php/as/article/view/3618 <p>Although proper safety management in construction is of prime importance, evidence from literature suggests that many developing countries do not consider safety adequately. This article examines the factors that influence the performance of safety management programmes in the Ghanaian Construction Industry. The objectives set to achieve this aim include identifying the safety elements incorporated in the safety programmes of construction firms, and determining the factors that negatively influence the performance of such elements. For objectivity, a quantitative survey was conducted among safety managers of 60 D1 building construction firms located in the Kumasi and Greater Accra regions of Ghana. The questionnaire was structured into three parts, which sought the respondents’ profile, identified the safety elements incorporated in the firms’ safety programmes, and identified the factors that negatively influence the performance of the safety elements. Following a detailed literature review, the respondents were asked to rate 13 elements and 17 factors on a Likert scale. Data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 22. In addition to determining the reliability of the various constructs, the MSs, modes and standard deviations were obtained. The findings revealed that all of the 13 elements were incorporated in the firms’ safety programmes. The key elements identified include ‘providing safety managers on site’; ‘providing written and comprehensive safety and health plans’; ‘introducing project-specific training and regular safety meetings’; ‘providing safety and&nbsp;health orientation training’, and ‘involving employees in safety and evaluation’.&nbsp;The findings further revealed that 16 of the 17 factors negatively influence the&nbsp;performance of the firms’ safety programmes. The identified factors were, among&nbsp;others, ‘insufficient communication of safety programmes’; ‘lack of workers’&nbsp;self-protection and awareness’; ‘contractors ignoring safety, due to the time&nbsp;pressures of the project schedule’; ‘poor personal attitudes towards safety’,&nbsp;and ‘ineffective laws and lack of enforcement’. Findings from this study should&nbsp;be useful to construction practitioners seeking to improve the safety records of&nbsp;their firms.&nbsp;</p> Kofi Agyekum Barbara Simons Seth Yeboah Botchway ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 25 2 39 68 10.18820/24150487/as25i2.2 Evaluating credit accessibility predictors among small and medium contractors in the South African construction industry http://journals.ufs.ac.za/index.php/as/article/view/3619 <p>The importance of small and medium construction enterprises (SMEs) in the South African economy has been recognised. However, construction SMEs are faced with difficulties in accessing credit from financial institutions. Furthermore, past research has failed to reach consensus on the demographic and socio-economic factors that predict credit accessibility for construction SMEs in South Africa. This study determines the predicting demographic and socio-economic factors for credit accessibility for construction SMEs from financial institutions in South Africa. A quantitative research approach was used and data was collected, using a questionnaire survey from 250 construction SMEs who were conveniently sampled. The demographic and company profile factors predicting credit accessibility were modelled and set as the independent variables with credit accessibility to the construction SMEs as the dependent variable, irrespective of the amount obtained from financial institutions. The data was analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to analyse the predictors of obtaining credit. In the first model, the results revealed that the credit accessed irrespective of the amount and those who did not receive credit at all, when modelled with the conceptualised predictors suggested, showed no significant predictors of obtaining credit. However, in the second model, when the conceptualised predictors were&nbsp;modelled with full and partial credit, the results&nbsp;established that age group, current position in the organisation, tax number&nbsp;and location were good predictors of obtaining full credit. The findings of this&nbsp;study cannot be generalised across South Africa, as the study was conducted&nbsp;only in the Gauteng province. The value of this study informs owners of SMEs&nbsp;in the construction industry to provide their age and current position in the&nbsp;organisation when applying for credit. They should also provide the tax number&nbsp;and the location of the business in order to improve their chances of obtaining&nbsp;full credit from financial institutions.&nbsp;</p> Olanrewaju Balogun Justus Agumba Nazeem Ansary ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 25 2 69 93 10.18820/24150487/as25i2.3 The use and benefits of Quick Response Codes for construction materials in South Africa http://journals.ufs.ac.za/index.php/as/article/view/3620 <p>This article explores the use and potential&nbsp;benefits of Quick Response (QR) Codes on&nbsp;construction materials in an attempt to ensure&nbsp;that the construction industry continues&nbsp;to be more technologically advanced.&nbsp;This qualitative research study consisted&nbsp;of interviews and case studies. A sample&nbsp;of 30 construction material suppliers in the&nbsp;Durban region were purposively selected and&nbsp;interviewed, using a semi-structured interview<br>schedule. Five case studies were randomly&nbsp;sampled from the Durban region where QR&nbsp;Codes were implemented for selected material&nbsp;samples. Knowledge, experience and the&nbsp;impact of QR Codes on construction materials&nbsp;were examined. The investigation chiefly found&nbsp;that most of the participants are in favour of the&nbsp;concept of using QR Codes, even though these&nbsp;are currently not widely used for construction&nbsp;materials in South Africa. Positive feedback was&nbsp;obtained from those participants who are using&nbsp;QR Codes on products. The findings provided&nbsp;the opportunity to improve the construction&nbsp;materials sector by introducing and&nbsp;implementing QR Codes as a technological&nbsp;advancement in the construction industry.&nbsp;</p> Tashmika Ramdav Nishani Harinarain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 25 2 94 118 10.18820/24150487/as25i2.4 Conversion of industrial wastes into marginal construction materials http://journals.ufs.ac.za/index.php/as/article/view/3621 <p>The circular economy concept (CE) makes a salient contribution towards resource efficiency through product-life extension, redistribution/reuse, remanufacturing, and recycling as well as re-engineering of organizational processes. The construction industry is renowned for its influence on the attainment of society’s sustainable development (SD) aspirations. As such, there is a need for the industry to embrace CE principles. Yet, the uptake of these principles has not been widely reported in the context of developing economies where greenfield construction activities are burgeoning. This observation gives rise to this study. This article reports on the findings of an investigation into the utility of industrial wastes in the production of marginal construction material. To achieve this objective, a thorough geotechnical evaluation of a selection of readily available industrial wastes such as dolomitic waste (DW), silica fume (SF), and river sand (RS) deployed in different ratios according to the mass percentage of the fly ash (FA) waste to produce FA bricks was conducted. Findings suggest that the utilization of these industrial wastes in the production of FA bricks did not only portray some outstanding characteristics but also showed potential to make salient contributions to society’s sustainable aspirations.</p> Frank Ikechukwu Aneke Bankole Awuzie ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 25 2 119 137 10.18820/24150487/as25i2.5 The impact of the Construction Regulations 2014 on a water utility’s projects’ health and safety (H&S) performance in South Africa http://journals.ufs.ac.za/index.php/as/article/view/3622 <p>The construction industry plays a major role in&nbsp;South Africa’s economic development. Despite&nbsp;its importance, the poor health and safety&nbsp;(H&amp;S) performance and associated costs to&nbsp;the industry are a concern. The literature review&nbsp;indicates that improved H&amp;S performance can&nbsp;be achieved on a project where there is a&nbsp;collaborative approach among all stakeholders&nbsp;during the six project stages. This study focuses&nbsp;on the impact of the Construction Regulations&nbsp;2014 on a water utility’s projects’ H&amp;S&nbsp;performance. It determines the H&amp;S involvement&nbsp;of client representatives and internal project&nbsp;stakeholders during the six project stages. It&nbsp;also addresses their commitment towards H&amp;S,&nbsp;measures taken by them during planning and&nbsp;design, in contracts to improve H&amp;S, and to&nbsp;select conscious contractors, and the extent&nbsp;of their H&amp;S participation in construction H&amp;S.&nbsp;Mixed methods research (a questionnaire&nbsp;survey and four case study projects) was&nbsp;used to collect the data required for the&nbsp;study. A total of 67 responses were obtained&nbsp;from the five stakeholder groups from the&nbsp;water utility, namely client representatives,&nbsp;designers, quantity surveyors (QSs), project&nbsp;managers (PMs), and construction H&amp;S (CHS)&nbsp;professionals to obtain information regarding&nbsp;their H&amp;S involvement during the six project&nbsp;stages. Four case study projects (three pre-&nbsp;Construction Regulations 2014 and one post-&nbsp;Construction Regulations 2014) were obtained,&nbsp;using a stratified random sampling technique&nbsp;and a checklist to obtain information regarding&nbsp;the stakeholder H&amp;S involvement during the&nbsp;six project stages and the overall project performance. The study found that&nbsp;the Construction Regulations 2014 are perceived to have had an impact on&nbsp;the water utility’s H&amp;S performance. There is a direct relationship between&nbsp;stakeholder H&amp;S involvement and project H&amp;S performance. The integration&nbsp;of H&amp;S in the initial project phases; early involvement of CHS professionals, and&nbsp;H&amp;S training for stakeholders are among the recommendations arising from&nbsp;this study.&nbsp;</p> Mandy Malindi John Smallwood ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 25 2 138 177 10.18820/24150487/as25i2.6 Built: The hidden stories behind our structures by Roma Agrawal http://journals.ufs.ac.za/index.php/as/article/view/3623 <p>This book is a maiden voyage by an&nbsp;energetic and inspiring 35-year-old&nbsp;female engineer, originally from Mumbai,&nbsp;India. She is currently an associate&nbsp;director at AECOM and a fellow of&nbsp;the Institution of Civil Engineers. Roma&nbsp;Agrawal obtained her BA degree in&nbsp;Physics from the University of Oxford in&nbsp;2004, and her MSc Structural Engineering&nbsp;degree from Imperial College London, in&nbsp;2005. Her fascinating résumé includes the&nbsp;impressive “The Shard” building in London&nbsp;(the tallest building in western Europe).&nbsp;She shares her engineering knowledge&nbsp;and experience as well as some personal&nbsp;stories with her readers in a practical&nbsp;and educational book, written in the&nbsp;first-person.&nbsp;</p> Pierre Oosthuizen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 25 2 178 179 10.18820/24150487/as25i2.7