Acta Structilia <p><em>Acta Structilia</em> is a South African accredited journal and publishes peer reviewed articles on any topic in the field of the physical and development sciences (i.e. architecture, quantity surveying, construction management, project management, building economy, engineering and property development).&nbsp;</p> University of the Free State en-US Acta Structilia 1023-0564 <p><strong>Copyright: </strong>Copyright is transferred to the author(s) when an article is accepted for publication.<br><strong><strong><strong>Publishing rights</strong>: </strong></strong>When an author/s publish an article in <em>Acta Structilia</em>, the author/s enter into a non-exclusive publishing agreement. This means that author/s may upload a second copy to institutional repositories.</p> <p><a href=""><img src=""></a><br>All articles are published under a&nbsp;<a href="">Creative Commons Attribution Licence (CC BY 4.0)</a>; readers are welcome to reproduce, share and adapt the content without permission provided the source is attributed.</p> <p><strong>Disclaimer:</strong> Views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the author(s). Publication thereof does not indicate that the Editorial Staff or the University of the Free State accept responsibility for it.</p> An exploratory factor analysis of risk management practices: A study among small and medium contractors in Gauteng <div class="textLayer"> <div class="endOfContent active">Risk management (RM) is acknowledged as a key activity in project management in the pursuit to deliver successful construction projects. However, these projects are associated with various risks, which often jeopardise project performance, especially among small and medium construction enterprises (SMEs). Risk management practices (RMPs) have been developed, in order to curtail project risks. Nevertheless, there is no consensus on the practices that constitute RM for SME projects. Therefore, the main purpose of this research is to determine the RMPs that can be tailored for construction SMEs to manage risk in their projects, in order to achieve project success. An extensive review of relevant literature on RMPs was conducted and used to develop a structured questionnaire posted to construction SMEs who were conveniently sampled in the Gauteng province of South Africa. The empirical findings established nine RMPs that were reliable and valid for managing risk in projects undertaken by construction SMEs, namely organizational environment; defining project objectives; resource requirements; risk measurement; risk identification; risk assessment; communication approach and evaluation; risk response and action planning, as well as monitoring and review. It is important to note that the study was not conducted across South Africa; hence, the findings cannot be generalized. Despite the delimitation, the researchers recommend that these practices are for risk management in construction projects undertaken by SMEs in South Africa.</div> </div> Bérenger Renault Justus Agumba Nazeem Ansary ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-14 2018-06-14 25 1 1 39 10.18820/24150487/as25i1.1 An assessment of the causes, cost effects and solutions to design-error- induced variations on selected building projects in Nigeria <p>Design errors and variations are inherently part of many construction projects and require deliberate effort to combat. The literature reviewed indicates that empirical studies of the cost effect of design-error-induced variations are scarce. This study investigates the causes of variation on building projects, the frequent design errors that lead to variation, the effects of design error on variation cost, and solutions to design-error-induced variation in design documents. A mixed methods research (interviews and 30 case study building projects) was used to collect the necessary data for the study. Interviews were conducted with 25 construction professionals to obtain information on the causes of variation on building projects and solutions to design-error-induced variation on building construction projects. Thirty documents including valuation breakdowns and variation/change order documents were obtained by convenience sampling technique and used for the extraction of design errors leading to variations and their associated costs. The data was analysed with frequencies and percentages. The study found that poor working drawing and lack of coordination among design documents are the major causes of variation. Errors in design calculations and wrong descriptions in specifications are prominent design errors that led to variation. Design errors account for roughly 36% of the variation cost of building projects. Structural and architectural drawings contain the largest number of errors among design documents, but electrical and mechanical documents have&nbsp;the highest contribution to variation cost. The study concluded that variation costs could be minimized if government policies, aimed at ensuring proper contract documentation, were put in place, and construction professionals were limited to their core roles on construction projects. Rechecking of design documents prior to use, knowledge sharing, and use of computer programs were among the recommended solutions to design-error-induced variation in project documents.</p> Oluwaseun Dosumu Clinton Aigbavboa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-14 2018-06-14 25 1 40 70 10.18820/24150487/as25i1.2 Successful transformational change in revenue management among beneficiary communities of South African renewable energy construction companies <p>Transformational change is the second of three sub-models that resulted from the splitting of the original model following the data analysis as part of a thesis entitled A theoretical model for successful management of revenue for beneficiary communities of renewable energy companies in South Africa. The sub-model provides specific guidance for project managers dealing with transformational change in communities to stakeholders, industry experts and community development practitioners in the renewable energy sector. The aim of the research was to promote a localised understanding of education, social interaction, social cohesion, infrastructure improvement and sharing to ensure success in managing the revenue for beneficiary community projects by renewable energy construction companies. A literature review of relevant literature on transfor mational change factors was conducted and used to develop a structured questionnaire distributed to national and international popu lation of project management practitioners who were conveniently sampled in South Africa. Using an electronic measuring instrument, the empirical findings established four factors that were reliable and valid for transformational change in communities, namely education, infrastructure development, human develop-ment, and change management. Using these factors and construc ting a path diagram of&nbsp;the indepen dent variables (education, infrastructure develop ment, human development, change management) and subsequent intervening (good governance) and dependent variables (perceived success of revenue management), appropriate hypotheses were developed to test the model. The hypotheses were analysed and tested empirically using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Determinants were identified as elements of transformational change that influence the success of revenue management for beneficiary communities for South African renewable energy companies. These included the use of education, infrastructure development, human development, change management, and good governance.&nbsp;</p> Ric Amansure Chris Adendorff ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-14 2018-06-14 25 1 71 97 10.18820/24150487/as25i1.3 A construction project management knowledge model: The type and level of knowledge required <p>Construction project managers come from diverse backgrounds and may, therefore, lack the knowledge set currently required in order to be competent and effective in practice. The aim of this article is to establish the National Qualifications Framework (NQF) level of each type of knowledge area required for a competent and effective construction project manager in South Africa. These levels of knowledge are important, in order to develop a proposed construction project management knowledge model to be used by the construction industry. A mixed methods research design was used, including structured questionnaires (n = 40), interviews (n = 10), and a single case study. The questionnaire survey, using close-ended questions measured on a 5-point Likert scale, tests the importance of and rated the NQF qualification levels of each knowledge type fit for project managers in the built environment. The rating assisted in knowing to what knowledge depth project managers need to be educated and trained. Interviews were conducted with 10 construction professionals to obtain their views on the importance of industry-specific know ledge of a construction project manager and to critically review the form of knowledge considered essential. The case study of a building project to the value of R35 million was used to gain understanding of the impact that industry-specific knowledge, or the lack thereof, may have on the successful completion of a project. Results showed that qualifications to gain industry-specific knowledge should at least be on NQF level 6; a qualification on NQF level 7 is recommended to gain adequate project manage ment knowledge (theory). These findings are important, as some construction project management courses in&nbsp;South Africa are currently below NQF level 6. This may be contributing to industry not producing construction project managers with the required knowledge set. The proposed model outlines the adequate knowledge sets and level thereof that can be used when designing training and educational degrees for construction project managers. The proposed model could also be used in practice as a guideline for placing or promoting construction project managers.</p> Michelle Burger Benita Zulch ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-14 2018-06-14 25 1 98 125 10.18820/24150487/as25i1.4 Assessment of housing quality in Ibeju-Lekki peri-urban settlement, Lagos State, Nigeria <p>This article assesses housing quality in Ibeju-Lekki, a peripheral settlement outside Lagos metropolitan region. Using purposive sampling, 370 housing units from clusters of 16 peri-urban settlements constituted the sample size. Primary data was sourced through structured questionnaires, interview (with local planning personnel) and observation schedules adminis-tered through a field survey. Using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, data analysis was done using descriptive analysis to generate frequen cies and percentages on socio-economic profile, neighbourhood quality, locational quality, dwelling quality, and building materials used. Tests of correlation were conducted on the mean of variables of neighbourhood quality, locational quality and building materials, derived through recoding of variables by means of Transform statistical tool, to establish the factors influencing housing quality in the study area. The findings show a significant positive correlation between household income and housing quality. The latter is found to be influenced by respondents’ socio-economic attributes, building materials, neighbourhood quality, and locational quality in the study area. It can be concluded that socio-economic characteristics, predominantly income of households, play a major role in the level of housing quality that can be accessed in the study area. It is, therefore, recommended that the state government and private developers should promote alternative building materials, in order to enhance housing affordability by the low-income group. This will reduce the spread of informal housing development. In addition, the state govern ment should align urban policy to eliminate disparity in&nbsp;infrastructural development which has impacted on poor neighbourhood and locational quality in Lagos peri-urban settlements.&nbsp;</p> Funmilayo Adedire Michael Adegbile ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-14 2018-06-14 25 1 126 151 10.18820/24150487/as25i1.5 Construction project management through building contracts, a South African perspective <p>This article reviews construction project manage-ment and building contracts in South Africa. It introduces general information and findings on the topic, forming part of a broader in-depth study, which proves difficult to encapsulate in one single article. The novice might perceive contract management, project management, and construction management to be the same concept. To clarify these concepts, the evolution of construction contracts and project management was studied to identify possible similarities between these concepts. This article commences with a brief history prior to a schematic analysis of the general characteristics of construction contracts and project manage-ment. It investigates the application of these concepts within South Africa and compares the general structure of the main contracts used within South Africa. This general investigation clearly shows that the standard conditions of contracts used in South Africa have similar structures to the main construction project management knowledge areas recognised by the Project Management Institute (PMI). The article also reviews the four general conditions of contracts endorsed by the Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) in South Africa and investigates the general clauses and themes of these contracts. The Construction Contract should consider all the Project Life-Cycle (PLC) stages. The Construction Contract should further be regarded as the Project Implementation Plan (PIP), on which the control procedures during construction are based. With the understanding of the evolution of the two streams (contracts and management), their relevance, goal, dependencies and responsibilities may be understood better. This may enhance the&nbsp;professional manner in which the management of the entire Project Life-Cycle (PLC) is implemented and approached.</p> Hendri du Plessis Pierre Oosthuizen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-14 2018-06-14 25 1 152 181 10.18820/24150487/as25i1.6 Facilities Management Practice by A.C. Hauptfleisch <p>Being in Facilities Management for over a decade, I was eager to find out if there is more that I can learn. What a surprise. I found this book to be of utmost value and requested that everyone in our division should read it. It correctly points out that an organisation falls within a particular culture, a way of doing things. This book provides a fresh and practical outlook that can be implemented on ground level. Changing Facilities Management could have a huge impact on the organisation, thus paving the way for new creativity and enthusiasm.</p> Nico Janse van Rensburg ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-14 2018-06-14 25 1 182 182 10.18820/24150487/as25i1.7